Callus is the hardening and thickening of the skin as a result of continuous or repeated friction or pressure.
As defined above, the cause of the callus is repeated friction and pressure on the sole.
Diabetes affects nerves and blood vessels, as a result of which, people do not realize the pressure on their feet. This in turn forms callus.
Callus is harmful because it increases sole pressure to a large extent, which in turn lead to ulceration and infection.
Pain, itching, irritation can be the presenting symptoms in a few patients. In diabetes, there can be absolutely no symptoms (because of Neuropathy), hardening of the part is the only presenting complaint in many.
As callus is not a disease but a mechanical problem caused due to pressure, its prevention is ideal and better than treatment. But if a callus is already formed, following are the steps to treat it
- Excision Of the callus with aseptic precaution. This is a simple procedure which can be performed by a specialist in the clinic. Local anesthesia is not always required especially in dry callus (without infection) but may be needed if the callus is deep and infected.
- Antibiotics are prescribed if the callus is infected and spreading.
- Strict sugar control.
- Most important is preventing the recurrence which can be done with the help of proper customized footwear( by offloading the pressure or avoiding the friction).